Monday, April 25, 2011
European countries such as Germany, the Netherlands using the following naming method.
Part 1: O-indicates semiconductor devices
Part II: A-C-diode, triode, AP-photodiode, CP-photoelectric triode, AZ-voltage tube, RP-optoelectronic devices.
Part three: many digital-indicates the ordinal number of registration of the device.
Part four: A, B, C ones-the ones represent the same type device variant products.
Russia semiconductor device model number nomenclature resulting from the use of small, this does not describe.
Reduce the audio noise hard method
Recordings finished with software on the human voice for noise reduction, soft method belongs to the following method is to reduce noise from the hardware, known as the hard way. After recording with CE, generally for noise reduction. But some users rely on too much for noise reduction. When it ignores recording on noise control. In fact, the noise control early in the sound recording is a very important thing. Because after the recording of the voice for noise reduction, regardless of how to deal with are affect sound quality. Noise reduction in performance, severe, listen to that voice of intermittent sense, also is to turn the friends say holes in the road feel. It seems old science fiction in the robot speech. Light and noise, the sound quality of damage is much smaller. But its details on the human impact of the performance should not be overlooked. In: the human voice is exquisite, wanna be tone sound field in the air are not strong, the singer atmosphere Foundation cannot fully reflected. Songs of the performance will be greatly diminished. Therefore, ensure quality, noise reduction is the more light, the better the sound quality without noise reduction is the best. But the actual recording. Do not input noise is not possible. So after the recording is to make noise. Since the noise reduction, the more light, the better the depth, you must set the recording input noise control to a minimum. The following talk about recording noise causes and treatments. 1. the causes of environmental noise and its treatment is usually online recording at home in the rooms, environmental noise is coming from the outside world the voice of noisy and automotive air conditioning, etc. Are unable to cancel. Only for noise. Family may not be as Studio acoustic decoration, General nor who would make a great investment and soundproof facilities. Feasible is: mouthguards, pull up the curtain, indoors as much as some items are placed to absorb the wall of sound reflection. Conditions can be surrounded by walls hung up flannel, and carpet. Turn off the sound of the Interior may be issued by the other machines. After the above processing, environmental noise is much smaller, the next step is to resolve noise from the computer itself. 2. computer noise handling computer noise mainly from built-in cooling fans, if your hardware has some ability, computer fans spin down. To reduce noise. But do not have the capacity of this DIY content can not see. Find the built-in CPU fan red line cut, string into a 500 ohm potentiometer of winding and fixed in a suitable place. Adjust the potentiometer, the fan speed minimum but touch CPU is hot on BIOS inside view the temperature does not exceed 50 degrees Celsius. The other is the power supply fan, power supply, such as opening act conspiracy into 500 ohm potentiometer. Regulation to minimize noise and power outlet temperature not higher than 35 degrees Celsius. Also some boards and North Bridge and graphics card also has a fan, depending on the temperature conditions can also be done in the above address, or simply unplug their power. However, note that if the fan is the third line, remove the words might lead system when the system detects hardware fan speed is too low and beep, so if these small fan noise is not too large, you can not be processed. The above processing is not sure that hardware temperature, especially motherboard without CPU over-temperature protection, it is best not to move. Because we have a very effective way. The computer from the computer desk in moved to the outside with a cotton quilt will cover the whole computer host box, wrapped better; it is necessary to pay attention to the chassis air outlet, you cannot trap, to leave a scar, but cannot directly communicates with the outside world. Should try to hold a shelf in a outlet (hanger) makes the air along the quilts will heat indirectly to the outside. This trick is most obvious. In this way, you can control the environment noise and noise machine has no room to play. Environment that is your residence specific noise, in addition to engaging in professional sound facilities, you are powerless. Here to talk about how to reduce device hardware circuit noise by itself, this is the most difficult to overcome, we must do the following. 1. turn off the use of fluorescent lamp ballasts for the child. This is most easily radiates electromagnetic hot wave of an electrical appliance. Some shielding bad recording devices are particularly sensitive to it. 2. to say often change the receiver, particularly dynamic microphone, for most people, it is not an easy task. But dynamic microphone cables can still be good for some. Microphone line needs to have the good shielding, otherwise easily lead to "zi zi" or "beep" sound. How to tell good shielding? loosen the microphone plug to see the two lines. One root in the middle (multiple unit a bunch), known as the core wire; another is called a screen (which is also a multiple unit) evenly distributed around the core, like surrounded the core wire. The more intensive the siege, the shielding effect is better (less noise). Some microphone cable shielding layer is very thin or no shield, this recording is easy to produce Michelle hum or zi zi static noise. This line must be replaced. And use the most common computer Jimmy, microphone and cable, earphone is one, to swap will work together. Its the most headache is not a sound quality and noise, because of its sensitivity is too high, it is easy to integrate environmental noise input, this depends on your previous how noise control. The following 3-, 4-point effect not obvious, scared of the trouble of watching. 3. do not use off line UPS to the computer power supply, also do not use ordinary regulator, because the regulator is the use of relay often switch transformer windings to meet broadly stable voltage purposes, when the switch is easy to generate noise into the recording. 4. conditional can use coarse wire will computer chassis ground to reduce electrostatic and electromagnetic noise. By: long 0.5-1 m of iron or steel dived into the mud, and then wire associate it with a computer connected to the chassis. And often sprinkled on the ground, some water to keep it moist ground. If you don't live in a House, it is free, please do not add on a public lightning ground wire. Finally talk about recording the anti-noise issues. 1. shock. Circle of Jimmy recording usually seated in the microphone stand, and the microphone stand is not shock, it directly with a microphone and building contacts, it is easy to put on the floor and building vibration incoming microphone, noise is more obvious. If there is no shock frame, you should take the following measures: softCotton soft package microphones handheld Department then fixed on the microphone stand. Microphone stand with feet or on soft material gaskets (free quilt piece or thick cotton). Practice shows that the effect is pretty good. If it is a handheld microphone singing microphone and friction between the hands and hand shaking is also easy to introduce noise. You can also use the cotton wrap after smaller handheld, noise. 2. proper control of the receiver and the distance from the mouth. Some friends over at recording, recurring injection Jimmy phenomenon, this is the microphone angle and distance not appropriate. The distance between the microphone and mouth should be controlled at about 8-10CM. Microphone aside from first-class should face diagonally (45 degrees) at the mouth, but do not allow spray directly into the microphone airflow first-class. Doing so will damage some treble and recording volume relatively smaller, so the TX-255 microphone amplifier design and high-gain high motivation.
<br> <BR> successful RF design must pay careful attention to each step throughout the design process and every detail, this means that beginning in the design will be a thorough, careful planning, and each design step .comprehensive and continuous assessment of progress. .Detailed design skills which most of the domestic electronics companies is lacking in culture. .In recent years, due to bluetooth devices, wireless local area network (WLAN) equipment, and mobile phone demand and growth, to promote the industry more and more concerned about the RF circuit design techniques. .From past to present, RF circuit board design as electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems, as has been the most difficult to control the part of engineers, or even a nightmare. .If you want to design a successful, careful prior planning and attention to detail can be effective. .Radio frequency (RF) circuit board design, in theory, because there are many uncertainties, it is often described as a "black art" (black art). .But this is only an incomplete view, RF circuit board design there are many rules to follow. .However, in practical design, the real practical skills is that when these rules can not be implemented due to various constraints, how a compromise deal with them. .Important RF design issues include: impedance and impedance matching, insulation material and stacked plates, the wavelength and harmonic ... so, this article will focus on RF circuit board with various issues related to the design district. .The types of micro-vias <BR> different nature of the circuit board to be separated, but also do not produce electromagnetic interference in the best case connection, which need to use micro-vias (microvia). .Micro-vias are usually 0.05mm diameter to 0.20mm, these vias are generally divided into three categories, namely, blind holes (blind via), buried vias (bury via) and the through-hole (through via). .Blind hole at the top and bottom surface of printed circuit board, with a certain depth for the line and below the inner surface of the connection lines, the depth of the hole is usually no more than a certain ratio (aperture). .Buried hole is located in the inner connection hole printed circuit board, it does not extend to the circuit board surface. .The two holes are located in the inner layer circuit board, laminated front through-hole forming process used to complete the process via the formation of overlap may also make a few lengths. .The third is called through-hole, this hole through the entire circuit board can be used to achieve internal interconnect or as a component of the adhesion location hole. .Partition techniques used in the design of RF <BR> circuit board, as far as possible the high-power RF amplifier (HPA) and low-noise amplifier (LNA) to isolate, simply, is to stay away from high-power low-noise RF transmitter circuit .receiver circuit. .If the PCB board has a lot of space, you can easily do this. .But usually when a lot of components, PCB space will become very small, so it is very difficult to achieve. .Can put them on both sides of PCB board, or let them turn the work, rather than simultaneously. .Sometimes high-power circuit may also include RF buffer (buffer) and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). .Design Division can be divided into physical partitions (physical partitioning) and Electrical Division (Electrical partitioning). .Physical partition layout of the main components involved, location and shielding issues; district can continue to be divided into electrical power distribution, RF alignment, sensitive circuits and signals, grounding and other partitions. .Physical partition layout <BR> components designed to achieve an excellent RF key, the most effective technique is to first fixed in the RF path components, and adjust its position, so to minimize the length of the RF path. .And to stay away from RF input RF output, and as far as possible away from the high-power circuits and low noise circuit. .The most effective method is to stack the circuit boards arranged in the main ground of the second subsurface layer, and RF cable to go as far as possible on the surface. .RF path through the pore size can be reduced not only the path to minimize inductance, but also can reduce the cold solder joint on the main ground point, and reduce the RF energy leakage to other regions within layered plates opportunities. .In the physical space, such as multi-stage linear amplifier circuit is usually sufficient between multiple RF isolated areas, but diplexers, mixers and IF amplifiers are always more than one RF / IF signals interfere with each other .must therefore be careful to minimize this effect. .RF and IF alignment cross walk as far as possible, and as far as they are separated by a ground area. .The correct path on the RF performance of entire PCB board is very important, which is why the layout of components in the mobile phone PCB board is usually the design of the reasons accounting for most of the time. .In the mobile phone PCB board, usually on the low noise amplifier circuit side of a PCB board, and the high power amplifier on the other side, and ultimately by the same plane diplexer to connect them to the end of the RF antenna .and the other end the baseband processor. .This requires some skill to ensure that RF energy does not have holes through from the board side to pass to the other side, the commonly used technique is used in both sides of the blind hole. .Blind holes can be arranged by the both sides of PCB board area without RF interference to the vias to minimize the adverse effects. .Metal shield at times, is unlikely to retain a sufficient number of circuit blocks of the segment, in which case we must consider the metal shield to RF energy in the RF shielded area, but the metal shield has side effects, .For example: manufacturing costs and assembly costs are high. .<BR> Irregular shape of the metal shield is difficult to ensure in the manufacture of high precision, rectangular or square metal shield and the layout of the components subject to some restrictions; metal shield is not conducive to replacement components and fault displacement; .the metal shield must be welded to the ground plane, and the components must maintain a proper distance, so need to occupy valuable PCB board space. .As much as possible to ensure the integrity of the metal shield is very important, so enter the metal shield of the digital signal lines should go as far as possible the inner layer, preferably the signal line layer ground plane is set to the next level. .RF signal lines from the metal shield at the bottom of the small gap at the gap and the ground wiring layer alignment out, but as far as possible gap in the surrounding area with the ground surrounded by the vast number of different signals on the ground floor through multiple vias can be .together. .<BR> Notwithstanding the above shortcomings, but the metal shield is still very effective, and often the only key circuit isolation solution. .Power supply decoupling circuit addition, appropriate and effective chip power supply decoupling (decouple) the circuit is also very important. .Many RF integrated circuit chip linear power supply noise is very sensitive to each chip typically need to adopt up to four capacitors and inductors to filter out all of an isolated power supply noise. .(Figure a) the minimum capacitance value usually depends on the capacitance of its own resonant frequency and pin inductance, C4's value is chosen accordingly. .Values of C3 and C2, because of its relationship pin inductance is relatively large, so RF decoupling effect has to be worse, but they are more suited to filter out low frequency noise signal. .RF decoupling is done by the inductor L1, which allows RF signals from the power line can not be coupled to the chip. .Because all the alignment is a potential can also be received RF signal transmitting antenna, so the radio frequency signal and the critical path, component isolation is necessary. .The physical location of the decoupling components is usually critical. .The layout of these principles are important components: C4 to IC pins as close as possible and grounded, C3 must be closest to the C4, C2 must be closest to the C3, C4 and IC pin connector with the alignment should be as short as possible, which .several components of the ground (especially C4) board should normally be by a ground layer of Lower Dir and the chip ground pin connected. .Component connected with the ground plane should be as close to the PCB through-hole board assembly pads, it is best to use to play on the blind hole in the pad will be connected to minimize inductance, the inductor L1 should be close to C1. .An integrated circuit or amplifier often have an open collector output (open collector), and therefore requires a pullup inductor (pullup inductor) to provide a high impedance load and a low RF impedance DC power supply, the same principle also applies to this .inductance decoupling the power supply side. .Some chips require more power to work, so it may take two to three sets of inductors and capacitors are decoupling handle them, if that is not enough space around the chip, then the decoupling effect may be poor. .In particular, require special attention are: the parallel inductance little close together, as it will form an air core transformer, and mutual interference signal is induced, so the distance between them at least equal to the height of one, or at right angles .order to minimize their mutual inductance. .Electrical Division Electrical Division <BR> physical partition with the same principles, but also contains a number of other factors. .Some parts of modern mobile phones with different operating voltage, and using software to control, to extend battery life. .This means that mobile phones need to have a variety of power, which produces more segregation. .Power usually cable (connector) the introduction, and immediately processed to filter out any decoupling circuit board from external noise, and then through a switch or linear regulator after the power distribution. .In the mobile phone, most circuits are very small DC current, so the trace width is usually not a problem, however, must be a separate power supply for high power amplifier designed as a high current line width, so that the instantaneous firing .state voltage drop (voltage drop) can be minimized. .In order to avoid too much current consumption, need to use multiple vias to the current passing from one layer to another layer. .In addition, if not in high-end power amplifier power supply pin decoupling it fully, then the high-power noise will be radiated to the entire board, and bring a variety of problems. .High power amplifier ground is very important, and often need to design a metal shield..
英文简称RFID术语英文名称 RFID术语中文名称Acquisition Time初始定位时间Active Leg激活航线Adapter转接器、拾音器、接合器Airborne空运的、空降的、机载的、通过无线电传播的Alkaline碱性的、碱性Almanac历书、概略星历Anti-Spoofing反电子欺骗Artwork工艺、工艺图、原图Atomic Clock原子钟Auto-controlling自动控制Avionics航空电子工学;电子设备Azimuth方位角、方位(从当前位置到目的地的方向)Agile Reader灵敏读写器Assemble按订单装配Anti-collision防碰撞Antenna天线Active tag有源标签Amplitude振幅A/DAnalog to Digita模拟/数字信号转换A/JAnti-Jamming反人为干扰ADFAutomatic Direction Finder自动定向仪ADOPAttitude Dilution of Precision姿态精度因子AEAntenna Electronics天线电子学AFBAir Force Base美国空军基地AFIAutomatic Fault Indication自动错误显示AFSAir Force Station空间站AHRSAttitude and Heading Reference System姿态方向参考系统AIMSAirspace Traffic Control Radar Beacon System IFF Mark XII System空中交通监控雷达信标系统敌我识别标志XII系统AOCAuxiliary Output Chip辅助输出芯片AOPAAircraft Owner & Pilot Associatio飞机所有者及飞行员协ASAnti-Spoofing反电子欺骗ASICApplication Specific Integrated Circui特殊应用集成电路ATCAir Traffic Control空中交通控制ATEAutomatic Test Equipmen自动测试仪器ATISAutomatic Terminal Information Service自动终端信息服务ATRCCAir Route Traffic Control Center空中航线交通控制中心AMVAuto Mag Var自动磁偏角AVLNAutomatic Vehicle Location and Navigation车辆自主定位和导航系统AWGAmerican Wire Gague美国线规AGPSAssisted GPS网络辅助GPS定位系统ARMAdvanced RISC Machines高级精简指令集机器ADCAutomatic data capture自动数据采集ASNAdvanced Shipment Notice预先发货通知APSAdvanced Planning System高级计划系统AITAutomated IDentification Technologies自动验证技术ASRSAutomatic Storage and Retrieval System自动存贮与检索系统ABCActivity-Based Costing作业制成本制度ABBActivity-Based Budgeting实施作业制预算制度ABMActivity-Base Management作业制成本管理APSAdvanced Planning and Scheduling先进规画与排程系统ASPApplication Service Provider应用程序服务供货商ATpAvailable To Promise可承诺量AVLApproved Vendor List认可的供货商清单ETOEngineer-to-Order按订单设计Beacon信标Bearing方向，方位(从当前位置到目的地的方向)Bug故障、缺陷、干扰、雷达位置测定器、窃听器Built-in内置的、嵌入的Bandwidth带宽Back Scatter反射散布Barcode条形码Bill of Lading提货单Bit位Bluetooth蓝牙技术Business Process业务流程BOMBill of Material物料清单BIBusiness Intelligence商业智能BTOBuild-to-Order订单生产BPRBusiness Process Reengineering企业流程再造BSCBalanced ScoreCard平衡记分卡BTFBuild To Forecast计划生产BCDBinary Code Decimal二进制BIPMInternational Bureau of Weights and Measures国际度量衡局BITBuilt-In-Tes内置测试BNCBNC同轴电缆接插件BPSKBi Phase Shift Keying双相移键控Cache缓存Carrier载体Carrier Signal载波讯号Check Digit校验位Chip芯片Chipless Tag无芯标签Collision冲突Concatenation链接Contactless Smart Card无接触智能卡Container集装箱Control Module控制模块Coupling耦合Cellular单元的、格网的、蜂窝的、网眼的Cinderella这里特指JAVAD GPS接收机OEM板的选项，能自动在隔周的星期二GPS午夜时刻开始的24小时内让您的Javad接收机和OEM板变为双频双系统Cold Start冷启动Connector接头、插头、转接器Constellation星座Control Segment控制部分Converter转换器、交换器、换能器、变频管、变频器、转换反应堆Coordinate坐标Co-pilot飞机副驾驶Cost-effective成本低，收效大的Course路线、路程、航线C/ACoarse Acquisition Code粗捕获码CDICourse Deviation Indicator航线偏航指示CMGCourse Made Good从起点到当前位置的方位COGCourse Over Ground对地航向CTSCourse To Stee到目的地的最佳行驶方向CEPCircular Error Probable循环可能误差CMGCourse Mode Good从起点到当前位置的方位CMOSComplementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor补充金属氧化物半导体CRPAControlled Radiation Pattern Antenna受控辐射天线CTRcritical temperature resistor临界温度电阻器CVRCVR飞行语音记录器CWContinuous Wave连续波CADComputer Aided Design计算机辅助设计CADDComputer Aided Design Device计算机辅助设计设备CDICourse Deviation Indicator航线偏航指示CDMACode Division Multiplex Access码分多址CDUControl Display Unit控制显示单元CacheCache高速缓冲存储器CouplingCoupling耦合CollisionCollision碰撞CADCAD计算机辅助设计CAPPComputer Aided Process Planning计算机辅助工艺设计CRMCustomer Relationship Management客户关系管理CMMScomputerized maintenance management system电脑化维修管理系统CAPACorrective And Preventive Activity纠正和预防措施CPGCustomer Packaged Goods消费包装产品CTOConfiguration-to-Order客制化生产CPMCritical Path Method要径法CPMComplaint per Million每一百万个使用者会有几次抱怨CRMCustomer Relationship Management客户关系管理CRPCapacity Requirements Planning产能需求规划CTOConfiguration To Order客制化生产CFRCase Fill Rate箱数供品率Data Carrier数据载体Data Collection数据采集Data Entry数据输入Data Field数据段Data Standard数据标准Data Structure数据结构Data Titles数据段简称Decode解码Die模块Distributed Architecture分布式结构Distribution Center分发中心DUN-14 (Despatch Unit Number)储运单元代码Dynamic Data动态数据De-emphasis去矫、去加重Definition清晰度Diagonal对角线、斜的、对角线的Distinguishability分辨率distance距离Dropping resistors减压电阻器、将压电阻器Dynamic data动态数据Distributed architecture分布式构架DatumDatum基准DTKDesired Track期望航线(从起点到终点的路线)DGPSDifferential GPS差分GPSDOPDilution of Precision精度衰减因子DACDigital to Analog Converter数字/模拟信号转换器DBDecibel (X = 10 LogX dB)分贝DLMData Loader Module数据装载模块DLRData Loader Receptable数据装载接收器DLSData Loader System数据装载系统DMADefense Mapping Agency国防制图局DMEDistance Mesurement Equipmen测距设备DoDDepartment of Defense美国国防部DRMSDRMS二维均方根DRSDead Reckoning System推测航行系统DSPDigital Signal Processing数字信号处DT&EDevelopment Test and Evaluation测试评估发展DARCDirect Access Radar Channel直接存取雷达波道DRMDense Read Mode密切读模式DNSDomain Name Service域名服务DHRDevice History Record器械历史文件DBRDrum-Buffer-Rope限制驱导式排程法DMTDesign Maturing Testing成熟度验证DSSDecision Support System决策支持系统DRPDistribution Resource Planning运销资源计划DRPDistribution Requirements Planning流通需求规划法EAN International国际物品编码协会EAN UCC Company PrefixEAN·UCC厂商识别代码EAN UCC PrefixEAN·UCC前缀码EMCElectromagnetic Compatibility电磁兼容能力EMIElectromagnetic Interference电磁干扰Electromagnetic Spectrum电磁波频谱Electromagnetic Waves电磁波 EASElectronic Article Surveillance商品电子防盗系统EDIElectronic Data Interchange电子数据交换Electronic Invoice电子发票Encode编码EAIEnterprise Application Integration企业应用集成ERPEnterprise Resource Planning企业资源规划EPCISEPC Information ServiceEPC信息服务EANEuropean Article Numbering欧洲商品编码Excite激发EMLExtensible Markup Language可扩展标识语言Extension Digit扩展位ElevationElevation海拔、标高、高度、仰角、垂直切面、正观图EnrouteEnroute在航线上、航线飞行EphemerisEphemeris星历EPEEstimated Position Error估计位置误差ETEEstimated Time Enroute估计在途时间(已当前速度计算)ETAEstimated Time of Arrival估计到达时间ECEFEarth Centered Earth Fixed地固地心直角坐标系ECPEngineering Change Proposal工程更改建议EDMElectronic Distance Measurement电子测距EFISElectronic Flight Instrument System电子飞行仪器系统EMElectro Magnetic电磁EMCONEmission Control发射控制ESGNElectrically Suspended Gyro Navigator电子陀螺导航仪EPCElectronic Product Code电子产品码EMIElectromagnetic interference电磁干扰EMCElectromagnetic compatibility电磁兼容性EMIDElectromagnetic ID tags电磁识别标签Electromagnetic waveElectromagnetic wave电磁波EDIElectronic data interchange电子数据交换EPCISEPC Information ServiceEPC信息服务EPC middlewareEPC middlewareEPC中间件ERPEnterprise Resources Planning企业资源计划ECEngineer Change设计变更／工程变更ECElectronic Commerce电子商务ECRNEngineer Change Request Notice原件规格更改通知EDIElectronic Data Interchange电子数据交换EISExecutive Information System主管决策系统EMCElectric Magnetic Capability电磁相容EOQEconomic Order Quantity基本经济订购量ERPEnterprise Resource Planning企业资源规划EASElectronic article surveillance商品电子防盗系统ETOEngineer-to-Order按订单设计EQQEconomic order quantity经济采购量Fast Moving Consumer Goods快速消费品FCC美国联邦传播委员会Firmware固件Fixed Measure Trade Item定量贸易项目Front-loading data cartridges前载数据卡FGCSFederal Geodetic Control Subcommittee(美国)联邦大地测量管制委员会FPLFlight Plan飞行计划FRPAFixed Radiation Pattern Antenna固定发射天线FSSFlying Spot Scanner飞点扫描设备FAAFederal Aviation Administration（美国）联邦航空局FCCFederal Communication Commission（美国）联邦通信委员会FDAUFlight Data Acquisition Uni飞行数据采集系统FDRFlight Data Recorder飞行数据记录器Filter Value滤值FAEField Application Engineer应用工程师FCSTForecast预估FMSFlexible Manufacture System弹性制造系统FQCFinish or Final Quality Control成品质量管理Global Commercial Initiative全球商业联盟Global Location Number全球位置码GTAGGlobal Tag全球标准标签 （G标签）GTINGlobal Trade Identification Number全球贸易识别号码GOTO从当前位置到另一航路点的航线GMTGreenwich Mean Time格林威治时间Grid格网坐标Geodesy大地测量学GPSGlobal Positioning System全球定位系统GLONASS俄国全球定位系统GaAsGallium Arsenide镓砷化物GDOPGeometric Dilution of Precision几何精度衰减因子GMDSSGlobal Marine Defense Safe System全球海上安全救助系统GTINGlobal Trade Item Number全球贸易项目代码GLNGlobal Location Number全球位置码GIDGeneral Identifier通用标识符GMNGeneral Manager Number通用管理者代码Gain增益HFHigh Frequenc高频House Way Bill Number货运代理人运单号Heading航向Headphone戴在头上的收话器、双耳式耳机Headset amplifier头戴式放大器High-contrast高对比度HAIHelicopter Association International世界直升机协会HAMCHarbin Aircraft Manufacturing Compan哈尔滨飞机制造厂HDOPHorizontal Dilution of Precision水平精度因子HQ USAFHeadquarters US Air Force美国空军总部HISHorizontal Situation Indicator水平位置指示HVHost Vehicle主机HF tagHigh-frequency tag高频率标签HeaderHeader标头HMIHuman Machine Interface人机界面Inductive Coupling感应耦合Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) Bands工业，科学和医药频段Infrastructure基础设施ICIntegrated Circuit集成电路ISOInternational Standards Organization国际标准化组织ITUInternational Telecommunications Union联合国国际电信联盟Internet of things物联网Interrogator询问器Interrogator (see Reader)讯问器 (参照解读器)Inventory库存ISO国际标准化组织Item产品Item Model产品型号Item Number产品编号Item Reference项目参考Item Reference Number项目代码Intercom内部通信联络系统、联络用对讲电话装置Intersection空域交界I/OInterface Option界面接口选项Initialization初始化Invert Route航线反转ICAOInternational Civil Aviation Organization国际民航组织ICDInterface Control Document界面控制文件ICSInternal Communication System内部通信联络系统IFIntermediate Frequency中频IFFIdentification Friend or Foe敌我识别IFRInfrared红外的，红外线IFRInstrument Flight Rules仪表飞行规则I-LevelIntermediate Level中间层ILSInstrument Landing System仪表着陆系统INMARSATINternational MARitime SATallite Organization国际海事卫星组织INSInertial Navigation System惯性导航系统Input/Output输入/输出IONInstitute of Navigation导航协会IOT&EInitial Operational Test and Evaluation原始操作测试和评估IPInstrumentation Port仪器使用端口ITSIntermediate Level Test Set中间层测试ITUInternational Telcommunication Union国际电信联合会TAIInternational Atomic Time国际原子时间IRRInternal Rate of Return内部收益率Inductive coupling电感式耦合IPInternet ProtocolInternet协议IETFThe Internet Engineering Task ForceInternet工程任务组IPInternet Protocol网际协议IPQCIn-Process Quality Control制程质量管理IQCIncoming Quality Control进料质量管理ISARInitial Sample Approval Request首批样品认可ITAInternational Technology Alliance国际技术联盟Jack 插座、插孔JITJust In Time实时管理J/SJamming to Signal Ration 信号干扰比JTIDSJoint Tactical Information Distribution System联合战术信息发布系统Keypad键盘、按键KHzKiloHertz千赫KPIKey Performance Index关键绩效指标KMKnowledge Management知识管理Line-of-sight Technology可视传输技术Logistic Measures物流计量Logistic Unit物流单元Logistics物流LFLow Frequency低频L1 FrequencyGPS信号频率之一(1575.42 MHz)L2 FrequencyGPS信号频率之一(1227.6 MHz)Latitude纬度、纬线Leg (route)航段，航线的一段LCDLiquid Crystal Display液晶显示器LAASLocal Area Augmentation System局域增强系统Localizer定位器、定位发射机、定位信标Longitude经度、经线LORANLong Range Radio Direction Finding System罗兰导航系统LbLb磅LEPLinear Error Probable线性误差LOLocal Oscillator本机振荡器LRIPLow Rate Initial Production小批量试生产LRULine Replaceable Unit线性可替代单元LBTListen Before Talk读取之前先查询监听LFTLow-frequency tags低频率标签Line-of-sightLine-of-sight Technology可视传输技术LANLocal Area Network局域网LDAPLightweight Directory Access Protocol轻量级目录访问协议L4LLot-for-Lot逐批订购法LTCLeast Total Cost最小总成本法LUCLeast Unit Cost最小单位成本LFRLine Fill Rate产品线供品率Magnification放大系数Manufacturer制造商Manufacturer's ID制造商标识Manufacturer's Number制造商代码Microchip微芯片Microchip微芯片Micron微米 Microwave Tags微波标签Middleware中间件Modulation调制Multiple Access Schemes多路配置Multiplexer多路转换器Magnetic North磁北Multiplexing Receiver多路复用接收机Multipath多路径Magnetic Variation磁偏角Map Display地图显示Meter米Mount安装、支架、装配、管脚、固定件M/SMetres per Second米/秒MCSMaster Control Station主控站MESManufacturing Execution System制造执行系统MoManufacture Order制令MPSMaster Production Schedule主生产排程MROMaintenance Repair Operation请修(购)单MRPMaterial Requirement Planning物料需求规划MRPIIManufacturing Resource Planning制造资源计划MCTMean Corrective Maintenance Time平均矫正时间MHzMegahertz兆赫MaxCTMaximum Corrective Maintenance Tim最大矫正时间MSAMinimum Safe Altitude最低安全高度MSLMain Sea Level公海平面Mean Sea Level平均海拔MTBFMean Time Between Failure平均无故障时MTOMake to Order按订单生产MANMetropolitan Area Network城域网MTSMake-to-Stock库存生产MHEMaterial Handling Equipment物料处理设备MRPManufacturing Resource Planning生产资源规划MDMManafacturing Data Management制造数据管理MESManufacturing Execution System制造执行系统MCTManufacturing Cycle Time制造周期时间Nanoblock纳块 Nominal Range标称范围Null Spot无效点Nautical Mile海里 (1海里=1.852米).Navigation导航Navigation Message导航电文NAVSTAR GPSNAVigation Satellite Timing and Ranging(NAVSTAR) Global Positioning SystemGPS系统的全称NMEANational Marine Electronics Association(美国)国家航海电子协会NMEA 0183NMEA 0183GPS接收机和其他航海电子产品的导航数据输出格式North-Up DisplayGPS屏幕显示真北向上NASANational Aeronautic Space Administration美国国家航空航天局NAVSTARNAVigation Satellite Timing and Rangin导航卫星测时测距NBAANational Business Aviation Association美国国家公务航空协会NDBNon Direction Beason无向信标NOSCNaval Ocean Systems Cente海军系统中心NRLNaval Research Labratory海军研究实验室NSNanosecond (10-9 second)纳秒NSANational Security Agency国家安全局NTDSNavy Tactical Data Syste海军战术数据系统NTSNavigation Technology Satellite导航技术卫NFCNFC近距离通信NAPTRNAPTR名称权威指针NCRNon-conformance不合格NPVNet Present Value净现值NFCFNotice for Changing Forecast更改预估量的通知ONSObject Naming Service对象名解析服务Observatory观象台、天文台Offset偏移量Omnidirectional全向的、无定向的Orientation方位、方向、定位、倾向性、向东性OCSOperational Control System操作控制系统ONSobject name service对象名称解析服务Object Class对象分类代码OEMOriginal Equipment Manafacturer原始设备制造商OPCOLE for Process Control用于过程控制的对象链接和嵌入OCTOrder Cycle Time订购周期时间OEMOriginal Equipment Manufacture委托代工ODMOriginal Design & Manufacture委托设计与制造OLAPOn-Line Analytical Processing在线分析处理OLTPOn-Line Transaction Processing在线交易处理OPTOptimized Production Technology最佳生产技术OQCOut-going Quality Control出货质量管理OFROrder Fill Rate订单供品率Packaging and Labeling包装和标记Packaging Type包装类型Pallet运输托盘Passive RFID system 被动射频系统 Passive Tag无源标签, 或称被动标签PMLPhysical Markup Language物理标识语言Platform平台PML Server物体标示语言服务器PML ServerPML服务器 Protocol协议Prototype原型Proximity Sensor近距离传感器Panel仪表盘、面板Panel-mount配电盘装配Parallel Channel Receiver并行通道接收机P-CodeP码Photocell光电管、光电池、光电元件Pinpoint极精确的、准确定位、准确测定、针尖Pixel象素Position位置Position Fix定位Position Format位置格式Power-on接通电源Pre-amplifier前置放大器Prime Meridian:本初子午线Pseudo-Random Noise Code伪随机噪声码Pseudorange伪距POHProduct on Hand预估在手量PRPurchase Request采购申请PCMCIAPersonal Computer Memory Card Internatuioal Association个人计算机存储卡国际协PDOPPosition Dilution of Precisio位置精度衰减因子PPMParts Per Million百万分之一PPSPrecise Positioning Service精密定位服务PVTPosition Velocity and Time位置速度和时间PPPayback Period回收期Polarisation极化PMLPhysical Markup Language实体标记语言Passive tag无源标签PLMProduct Lifecycle Management产品生命周期管理PDMProduct Data Management产品数据管理PAPCProduction and Process Control生产和流程控制PDCAPlan-Do-Check-Action管理循环PDMProduct Data Management产品数据管理系统PERTProgram Evaluation and Review Technique计划评核术POPurchase Order订单QAQuality Assurance品质保证QCQuality Control质量管理(QCCQuality Control Circle品管圈QEQuality Engineering品质工程Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum无线电频谱RFIDRadio Frequency Identification射频识别Radio Wave射频信号 Read Range解读范围Read Rate读取速度Reader解读器, 或称阅读器, 读写器Reader Collision解读器冲突Reader Field解读器区域Read-Only Tag只读标签Read-Write Tag读写标签Receiver接收器Retailer零售商ROIReturn on Investment投资回报Returnable Asset可回收资产RFID Tag射频标签Rack齿条、支架、座、导轨Resolution分辨率Route航线RS-232数据通信串口协议RTCMRadio Technical Commission for Maritime Services航海无线电技术委员会，差分信号格式RAIMReceiver Autonomous Integrity Monitorin接收机自动完好监视RAMReliability and Maintainabilit可靠性和可维护性RCVRReceiver接收机RFRadio Frequency射频RMSRoot Mean Square均方根RTCARadio Technical Commission for Aeronautics航空无线电技术委员会RTDRealtime Differential实时差分RTKRealtime Kinematic实时动态RXRX接收RWRead-write读写Reader collision读写器碰撞ROMRead-only memory只读存储RCCPRough Cut Capacity Planning粗略产能规划RMAReturned Material Approval退货验收ROPRe-Order Point再订购点Scanner扫描器Semi-passive RFID System 半主动射频系统 Semi-Passive Tag半无源电子标签, 或称半被动式电子标签Sensor感应器Short Range短距离Simultaneous identification同时识别功能 Smart Card智能卡Smart Label智能标签Static Data静态数据 Supplier供应商Supply Chain Management (SCM)物流管理System Implementation系统实施SASelective Availability选择可用性Sidetone侧音Source信号源、辐射体Space Segment空间部分SOGSpeed Over Ground对地航速Specifcation详述、说明书、规格、规范、特性Split Comm分瓣通信Squelch静噪音、静噪电路、静噪抑制电路Statute Mile英里(1英里=1,609米)Straight Line Navigation直线导航StrobeStrobe闸门、起滤波作用、选通脉冲、读取脉冲SFASales Force Automation自动销售SCVSupply Chain Visibility供应链可见性SCADASupervisory Control and Data Acquisition数据采集和监视控制SCMSupply Chain Management供应链管理SFCShop Floor Control现场控制SISStrategic Information System策略信息系统SOSales Order订单SORSpecial Order Request特殊订单需求SPCStatistic Process Control统计制程管制SILSystem Integration Labratory系统集成实验室SPISpecial Position Identification特殊位置标识SPSStandard Positioning Service标准定位服务SPSPSpread Spectrum扩频SSBSingle Sideband单边带STDCDUSTanDard CDU标准控制显示单元SCHschematic原理图Symbian新兵操作系统SPCStatistic process contro统计过程控制SemiSemi-passive tag半无源标签Static data静态数据SOAService Oriented Architecture面向服务架构SSCCSerial Shipping Container Code系列货运包装箱代码SNSerial Number序列号Smart Card智能卡SCMSupply Chain Management供应链管理SEPSpherical Error Probable球概率误差SAMSOSpace and Missile Systems Organization空间导弹系统机构SIDsudden ionospheric disturbance(通常由太阳引起的)电离层突然骚动Tag标签Tag Collision标签冲突Temporal Data暂态数据 Track and Trace跟踪与追踪Trade Measures贸易计量Transmitter发射器 TRKTrack航向Transceiver步话机、收发两用机TracBack按航迹返航Track-Up Display航向向上显示Transponder雷达应答机、（卫星通讯的）转发器、脉冲转发机Transducer渔探用探头、传感器Triangulation三角测量True North真北TRNTurn现时航向和目的地之间的夹角Two-way双向的、双路的、双通的TCASTraffic Collision Avoidance System交通避免碰撞系统TDOPTime Dilution of Precision时间精度衰减因子TTFFTime to First Fix首次定位时间TTRTarget Tracking Rada目标跟踪雷达TXTX发射TACANTactical Air Navigation空战导航TAIInternational Atomic Time国际原子时间telematics汽车电信息通信技术TMCTraffic Message Channel交通信息频道Tag collision标签碰撞TCPTransmission Control Protocol传输控制协议Task management任务管理Trade Item贸易项目TCPTransfer Control Protocol传输控制协议TAVTotal Assets Visualization全部资产可视化TOCTheory of Constraints限制理论TPMTotal Production Management全面生产管理TQCTotal Quality Control全面质量管理TQMTotal Quality Management全面品质管理UHF超高频UCCUniform Code Council美国统一代码协会UPCUniform Product Code通用产品代码UTCUniversal Time Coordinated世界协调时间UTMUniversal Transverse Mercator通用横轴墨卡托投影U.S.C.GU.S.C.G美国海岸警卫队User Interface用户自定义界面User Segment用户部分UEUser Equipment用户设备UHFUltra High Frequenc超高频USNOUS Naval Observatory美国海军天文台UWBUltra Wideband超宽带UHFUltra-high frequency超高频UPCUniversal Product Code通用产品代码URIUniform Resource Identifier统一资源标识URLUniform Resource Locator统一资源定位器UMLUnited Modeling Language统一建模语言UDPUser Datagram Protocol用户数据报协议VMGVelocity Made Good沿计划航线上的航Viewing anglesViewing angles视角VDOPVertical Dilution of Precision高程精度衰减因子VFRVisual Fligft Rules目视飞行规则VHFVery High Frequency甚高频VHSICVery High Speed Integrated Circuit超高速集成电路VLSICVery Large Scale Integrated Circuit超大规模集成电路VNAVVetical Navigation高程导航VORVery High Frequency (VHF) Omnidirectional Rang甚高频全向信标VOXVoice-operated transmission音控传输VMIVendor Managed Inventory供应商免费存放VMSAvendor managed staging area制造商免费存放Wafer晶片 Warehouse Management仓库管理Write Rate记录速度WaypointWaypoint航路点WAASWide Area Augmentation System广域差分系统WGS-84World Geodetic System - 19841984年世界大地坐标系WindshieldWindshield防风玻璃、防风罩WRSWide-area Rover Station广域流动站WMSWide-area Master Station广域主控WaferWafer晶片WIPWork In Process在制品XTE/XTKCrosstrack Error偏航XTECrosstrack Error偏航距XMLeXtensible markup language可扩展标记语言XQLXML Query LanguageXML查询语言Y-Code加密的P码Yoke架、座、轭、磁轭、磁头组、偏转线圈YPGYuma Proving Ground尤马实验场1 PPM1 Pulse Per Minute分脉冲1 PPS1 Pulse Per Second秒脉冲2D2D二维定位3D3D三维定位
In any switching power supply design, PCB physical design are the last link, if improper PCB design methods may be radiation excessive electromagnetic interference, leading to the power supply is unstable, the following for each step in the matter of:
1. from the schematics to PCB design process to build component parameters-> input principle netlist-> design parameters settings-manual layout-> > > verifying manually routing-design-review-> > CAM output.
Second, parameters setting adjacent wire spacing must be able to meet the electrical safety requirements and for ease of operation and production, space should be as wide as possible. The minimum spacing is at least to be suitable for the accommodation of voltage, wiring density is low, the signal line spacing can be appropriately increased, on the high and low level of disparity signal cable should be as short as possible and increase the spacing, under normal circumstances will go line spacing set to 8mil.
Welding plate hole edge to PCB edge distance to greater than 1 mm, this prevents machining defect: when the pads. When the connection with pad alignment to the finer, the pads and alignment between connections are designed as drops of water, this benefit is not easy to pad up skin, but the alignment and pads are not easily broken.
3. components layout proved that even if the correct circuit schematic design, printed circuit board design, also on the reliability of electronic devices. For example, if the printed circuit board with two fine parallel lines are very close, will form the signal waveform delays in the transmission line terminal formation reflection noise; because of the power supply, ground for think not thoughtful and interference, makes the product performance, therefore, in the design of printed circuit board, it should be noted that using the right methods. Each switching power supply has four current loop:
(1). the power switch on the ACcircuit
(2). output rectifiers AC loop
(3). the input signal source current loop
(4). the output load current circuit input circuit through an approximate DC current to the input filter capacitor capacitance charging, mainly played a role in broadband energy storage; Similarly, the output filter capacitor is also used to store the output of high-frequency rectifiers from energy, while eliminating the output load circuit of DC energy. Therefore, input and output filter capacitor's terminals, input and output current loop should only from filter capacitor terminals connected to a power source; if the input/output circuit and power switch/rectifier connection cannot and capacitor Terminal is directly connected to the exchange of energy will be input or output filter capacitor and radiation into the environment. Power switch AC circuit and rectifier circuit contains high-amplitude AC ladder-current, the current harmonic constituents in very high, their frequency is much larger than switch base frequency, the peak amplitude up to continuous input/output DC current ranges of 5 times, the transition time is typically around $ 50ns. The loop is the easiest to produce electromagnetic interference, it must supply the other printed line wiring cloth well before these AC circuits, each loop of three major components filter capacitors, power switch or rectifiers, inductance or the transformer should be placed next to each other, enabling them to adjust component position between the current path as short as possible. Establishment of switching power supply layouts best method and electrical design, best design process are as follows:
· Placement of transformer
· Designed power switch current loop
· Design output rectifier current loop
· Connection to AC power circuit of the control circuit
· Design input current source circuit and input filter design output load circuit and an output filter function according to the circuit on the circuit, all the components for layout, to comply with the following principles:
(1) it is first necessary to consider the PCB size. PCB size is too large, printed lines long, impedance, anti-noise reduced capacity, cost also increases; too small, the heat is not good, and the adjacent line susceptible to interference. Circuit board best shape rectangle, aspect ratio 3: 2 or 4: 3, located on the edge of the circuit board, circuit board edge components are generally not less than 2mm.
(2) place the devices to be considered when subsequent welding, not too dense.
(3) to each function circuit core components as the Center, around it for layout. Components should be uniform, neat, compact and arrange in the PCB, minimize and reduce the components and connections between the leader, decoupling capacitor as close as possible to devices VCC.
(4) in the high-frequency circuit working, consider the components of the distribution parameters. General circuit should, as far as possible, so that the components are arranged in parallel. In this way, not only beautiful, but Assembly welding easy, easy-to-volume production.
(5) in accordance with the arrangements for the various circuit processes function circuit unit position which makes the layout for the signal flow and make the signal as a consistent direction.
(6) layout, first and foremost, ensure that the wiring layout pass rate, mobile devices, note the fly line connections, a connection between the devices together.
(7) as much as possible to reduce the loop area, to inhibit switching power supply's radiation interference.
4. wiring switching power supply includes a high-frequency signal, PCB printed lines on any can play the role of the antenna, the printed line length and width affect its impedance and inductance, resistance to impact frequency response. Even through the DC signal of printed lines also be printed from the adjacent line coupled to the RF signals and cause circuit issues (even radiation from interfering signal again). It should be all by AC current printed lines designed to be as much as possible short, wide, which means that all connections to must be printed and attached to other components of the power cable is very near placement. Length of printed lines and the inductance and resistance, while the width is proportional to the printed line inductance and resistance inversely. Length reflects the printed line response in the wavelength, the longer length, the printed line to send and receive electromagnetic waves of frequencies lowerIt can radiate more RF energy. According to the size of the printed circuit current, to increase the power line width, reduce the loop resistance. At the same time, the power cord, Earth trends and current direction consistent, this helps to enhance the ability of noise. Grounding is switching power supply four current circuit of underlying slip as circuit public reference point plays an important role, it is important to control interference. Therefore, in the layout should carefully consider the placement of the grounding, the grounding will cause power work mix. The design of the ground should note the following:
1. the right to select a single point of grounding in General, the public-side filter capacitor should be other bonding coupled to high current communication and the only connection point, the same level circuit grounding should be as close as possible to, and at the circuit of a power filter capacitors should be received in the line received the mainly consider circuit parts flow back into the current is changing, because the actual flow of line impedance can cause circuits to partially potentials and the introduction of interference. During the switching power supply, cabling, and devices of inductance less drastic and earthing circuit formation in circulating to disturb a greater impact and, therefore, adopt the point grounding, is about power switchcurrent loop (in the device's ground lead are attached to the grounding pin, output voltage rectifier current circuit of several devices in the ground also received a corresponding filter capacitance of earthing pin, so the power work more stable, less exciting. Do not to the point, in total located 2 diode or a small resistance, the add-in are more concentrated at a copper foil.
2. as far as possible, bold Earth wire to the Earth wire is very thin, ground potential with current changes, the electronic equipment of timed signal level instability, anti-noise performance deterioration and, therefore, to ensure that every large current ground-end uses as far as possible short, wide printing lines, try to expand the power and ground wire width, preferably ground than power line width, their relationship is: ground ＞ power cord ＞ signal lines, if possible, grounding line width should be greater than the available area 3mm, also for ground wire copper layers in PCB with, on not being used in places connected with the land as a ground wire. For global distribution, you must follow the following principles:
(1). the wiring direction: from the welding surface, the components of the arrangement position as possible consistent with schematics, wiring diagrams and best direction alignment direction, because of the production process is typically required in welding surface detection of various parameters, so doing facilitate production check, debug and repair (Note: refers to meet performance and overall machine installed circuit and the Panel layout requirements).
(2). the design diagram is alignment as few turn printing arc on line width not mutations, the wire should be ≥ 90 ° corner, seeking to line simple and straightforward.
(3). the printed circuits are not allowed in a cross-circuit, may cross the line, you can use the "drill" and "around" solution. That is, let a lead from the level of resistance, capacitance, transistors at the foot ofthe fills "drilled" in the past, or from may cross a leader at the other end of the "round" in the past, in special circumstances on how circuit complexity to simplify design also allows the use of wire jumper, cross circuit. Due to adoption of the single-panel, direct plug in components located on the top surface, the table attached devices located at the bottom surface, so when the layout directly plugged devices can overlap with the table attached devices, but to avoid overlapping the pads.
3. input to and output to the switching power supply for low-voltage of DC-DC, wishes to output voltage feedback back to transformer primary, there should be common on either side of the circuit of the reference to the ground on either side of the shop copper respectively, have joined together to form a common ground.
5. check the wiring design is completed, you will need to carefully check the wiring design conforms to the rules set by the designers also need to verify that the rules are consistent with the printed circuit board production process requirements, check the cables and wires, cables and component pads, line and through-hole, component pads and through-hole, through holes and the distance between the through hole is reasonable, whether to meet production requirements. The power and ground wire width is appropriate, whether there are in the PCB can make ground widened. Note: some errors can be ignored, such as some of the plug part of the Outline of a plate and frame, check the spacing is wrong; in addition each modified line and through-hole, to copper.
6. review under the "PCB Checklist", including design rules, of the definition, line width, spacing, pads, through-hole settings, also focused on reviewing the reasonableness of the layout of the device, power supply, ground network alignment, high-speed clock network alignment and shield, decoupling capacitor of a substantial and connections, etc.
7. Design output export-painted paperconsiderations:
A. need output layer wiring layer (bottom), printing (including top screen printing, underlying screen printing), solder mask layer (layer mask), drilling layer (bottom), and also generate drill files (NCDrill)
B. setting screen printing layer for Layer, PartType, choose not to select the top level (bottom) and screen printing layer Outline, Text, Linec. in the settings of each layer, the Layer will be selected, set the BoardOutline silk-screen printing layer for Layer, PartType, choose not to select the top level (bottom) and screen printing layer Outline, Text, Line. D. generate drill file, use the default settings, PowerPCB not to make any changes.
In the decorative lighting applications, available ultra-high brightness red, green and blue LED as light source, using the embedded microcontroller, the duty on certain only led glow brightness to achieve independent digital control to produce full-color variation effect.
1. structural arrangement of LED
Here to introduce the concept of a light emitting element, ultra-high brightness red, green and blue LED according to the color required proportion constitutes the glow element, each light-emitting unit at least arrange a red light LED, a green LED and a blue LED, then several of the same structure of light-emitting unit according to certain shape or pattern to arrange for a line or area light source. In the same light emitting element, LED should closely aligned, so you can make the LED's spot in the viewers eye image overlap. Adjacent light emitting unit Center distance should be the same, and the Center shall meet the following type:
Type: D shine to the adjacent cell's minimum Center; L for normal use when the view-point and the vertical distance from the light source position; θ as a minimum resolution of the human eye.
LED decorative lighting applications in the control circuit can be independent control of each light-emitting unit three led brightness levels, you can control each light unit-red, green, blue three colors in proportion to each light-emitting unit leveling out many different colors. If at the same time control different emitting unit displays a different color, you can make the entire decoration light emitting parts presents a colorful effect. If the light-emitting unit into certain patterns or text to a shape, you can control the lighting to produce dynamic patterns, text changes.
2. the structure of the control circuit
The whole circuit is divided into embedded controller circuit and control circuit two parts displayed, display the control circuit is divided into three modules: module, green, red and blue module module. The structure of each module, the module with embedded MCU connection methods. Each module consists of several LED driver IC cascaded, of which the first level LED drive through cable and next level LED drive connections. Embedded microcontroller by the signal line and the LED drive in the module. Each LED driver IC has several outputs, each output can meet under color requires a or more only LED, the same module in the output are the same color as the LED. Red, green, blue three module internal LED drive structure, as well as modules and embedded MCU connection structure are identical.
3. control principle
Via built-in to the program of micro-controllers, LED by the micro-controller to send control signals driver chips and the data LED driver IC under control signal and data requirements to produce the appropriate action, which LED to a realization of a separate control. If the micro-controller continuously to the LED drive constantly send control signals and data, enabling continuous coordination LED under control, the overall lighting produces a variety of colors, a variety of dynamic change. The entire display control circuit in accordance with a control needs, divided into red, green, blue three control modules, each module of the structure and control principles are basically the same.
Micro-controller via a data cable to the LED drive serial data input pin to send serial data to another data output cable to the LED drive clock signal input pin sent clock control signal, the clock control signals, serial data LED driver IC internal shift register. When the received data, micro-controller to the LED drive data latch input pin issued latch signal so that the LED drive latch already stored data. Then the microcontroller to LED drive output allows control pin output enable signal is given, so that the LED drive depending on the storage of data-driven LED light. Because of the LED drive storage data determines the high and low level LED driver PIN combinations state the length of duration, that is, each lit LED or off the length of time, so as long as the adoption of the microcontroller changing output-LED drive serial data and clock control signals, data latch signal, output enable signal common tie, you can flexibly control LED lighting condition. For example, the control LED to the human eye could not blink rate rapid on-off and control LED in each light off cycle inner glow, the proportion of the time, we will be able to control the led brightness effect. Through emitting each LED brightness control, enables each LED produce 256-level brightness level. On three modules in the red, green and blue LED at the same time, maintain control of red, green, blue three color LED by any combination of different brightness levels, which have 256 × 256 × 256 (16777216) color effect. If the red, green, blue three color LED by a certain percentage and certain infrastructure arrangement, according to this kind of control, you can display a variety of colors, a variety of designs, text, and its combination of arbitrary dynamic display effect.
1. led lamp with use of chip: chip has domestic and Taiwan chip, chip (including United States Japan chip, chip, Germany chip, etc.). Chip, the price difference is very big. The most expensive is the United States chip, followed by Japan and Germany chip, affordable is Taiwan chip. Specifically what chip? what do you want to achieve? purchase before you know it. Others light used chip is CREE we can think about how much the price will be expensive. So now our products are primarily used in the lighting field, are rarely used in decoration.
2. led packaging: resin encapsulated and silicone encapsulation. Resin package prices are cheaper because the cooling performance is marginal, the other is the same. Silicone encapsulated thermal performance is good, so the price is slightly expensive resin encapsulated.
3. LED color consistency: at present, there are a lot of packaging factory, contradicting also have thousands, of course, is a strength of the strong or weak. There are many small packaging plant in the absence of light color separations, and therefore either not beam separations or outward so it will be hard for quality assurance. Not been LED by separations, its color consistency is poor, LED lamp with light after the effect is not so good, of course, the price difference is relatively large.
4. LED welding effect: led lamp belt assembly machine by hand soldering and welding of two, manual welding with a soldering iron, using the most original way of welding. Such practices out of product a is the appearance of ugly (spot size is inconsistent, flux residues, solder joints are not smooth, led package is hot bad, etc.), the second is the electrostatic protection measures is not good, a lot of LED chip is breakdown, leading to the emergence of micro-light up when powering on or off.
Welding machines, welding machine is used for soldering, reflow soldering products not only looks beautiful (spot size consistent, smooth solder flux residues, helplessness, led packaging intact), and will not show the chip is the phenomenon of electrostatic burned. At the same time, the LED position and direction are more beautiful. This can be seen directly on the skin.
5, FPC materials: FPC Division rolled copper and deposited copper deposited copper plate, relatively cheap, rolled copper more expensive. Deposited copper pads in bending easily fall off, but will not be rolled copper. Specific uses of material of FPC, look at purchasers themselves according to the use of the environment to make a decision.
There are no 6, FPC is environmental certification and UL certification? is there patents LED, etc. There are certified and have a patent, the price more expensive, the price is not cheap.
7, the brightness of the LED: a different brightness led prices, normal brightness and highlight a difference comparison of LED price disparity. Therefore, purchase of time must be clearly know that they need is what kind of brightness in order to accurately locate their products.
8, LED color: color, price is not the same. White, green, because color and light color separations difficult, so the price is higher than other colors price to high; the red, yellow, blue, colors with color separations easier, and better consistency, and slightly cheaper price. Special colours such as purple, Brown, etc. due to color, its price is the most expensive.
9, LED by size: the size of different specifications, the price of LED. If the LED 0603 and 1210 (3528) LED to the price difference is large; and 1210 and 5050 specifications LED prices comparable to a higher level.
Thermal resistance is the most commonly used in low temperature region of a temperature detector. Its main characteristic is the measurement of high precision, stable performance. With the Platinum thermal resistance measurement accuracy is the highest, it is not only widely used industrial Thermometry, and be made into a standard benchmark instrument.
1. thermal resistance measurement principle and materials
Thermal resistance measurement is based on the metal conductor resistance with temperature increases this characteristic for temperature measurement.
Thermal resistance are mostly composed of pure metal materials, used at present is the highest number of Platinum and copper, in addition, it has been used since Austin, nickel, manganese and rhodium materials manufacturing thermal resistance.
2. thermal resistance of structures
(1) master-RTD, resistance temperature measurement principle from the measured temperature changes directly through RTD resistance changes to measure, therefore, the thermal resistance of the PIN and other conductor resistance changes will impact for temperature measurement. To eliminate the effects of lead resistance with using three-wire or 4-wire.
(2) armored resistance armored resistance is determined by the heat element (resistance), leader, insulating materials, stainless steel casing with a combination of a solid body, as in Figure 2-1-7 shows, its diameter is 2 ~ φ φ 8 m m, minimum up to φ m m.
Compared with ordinary thermal resistance, it has the following advantages: ① small, no air gap inside the thermal inertia, small measuring latency; ② good mechanical properties, excellent resistance to vibration and shock resistant; ③ can bend, easy to install ④ long service life.
(3) end end RTD RTD temperature sensor components by special treatment resistance wire-wound, close to the end of the thermometer, it and General axial resistance compared to more accurately and quickly to reflect the actual measured surface temperature, suitable for measuring bearing and other parts of the surface temperature.
(4) flameproof thermal resistance flameproof thermal resistance through special structure of the terminal box, inside the shell due to the explosive gas mixture is sparks or arcs, impact and explosion confined in the terminal box, production site will not be cited-explosion. Flameproof thermal resistance can be used for Bla ~ B3c-area with explosion risk areas of temperature measurement.
3. the composition of the thermal resistance temperature measurement system
Thermal resistance measurement system by thermal resistance, wire and display instruments, etc. You must note the following points:
① RTD and display instrument of indexing codes must be consistent
② to eliminate wire resistance changes, you must use three-wire connection. Specific details see this chapter III.
(2) armored resistance armored resistance is determined by the heat element (resistance), leader, insulating materials, stainless steel casing with a combination of a solid body, its diameter is 2 ~ φ φ 8 m m, minimum up to φ m m.
Compared with ordinary thermal resistance, it has the following advantages: ① small, no air gap inside the thermal inertia, small measuring latency; ② good mechanical properties, excellent resistance to vibration and shock resistant; ③ can bend, easy to install ④ long service life.
(3) end end RTD RTD temperature sensor components by special treatment resistance wire-wound, close to the end of the thermometer, it and General axial resistance compared to more accurately and quickly to reflect the actual measured surface temperature, suitable for measuring bearing and other parts of the surface temperature.
(4) flameproof thermal resistance flameproof thermal resistance through special structure of the terminal box, inside the shell due to the explosive gas mixture is sparks or arcs, shadow
Resistance of circuit breaker repair must change resistance wire length and impact resistance values, the replacement of the resistance of the body as well, the use of welding repairs, welding to validate qualified to use.
<br> <br> Skin color of black or white <br> Dimensions (display) 444 (W) x360 (H) x35 (D) mm <br> <br> (Carton) 492 (W) x150 x417 (H) ., (D) <br> <br> Product weight (net / gross) 3.6/4.6kg <br> <br> Display <br> <br> 19-inch display screen size <br> <br> The Visual area of .410.4 × 256.5mm <br> <br> The Visual area of 410.4 × 256.5mm <br> <br> If widescreen is <br> <br> Screen ratio 16: 10 <br> <br> The Visual angle of 170 / .160 ° <br> <br> You can adjust the angle of tilt: -5 ° ~ 15 ° <br> <br> Screen rotation: none <br> <br> Height adjustment: no <br> <br> Rotation: .none <br> <br> Panel features <br> <br> Brightness 300cd / © o <br> <br> Contrast ratio of 3000: 1DCR <br> <br> Black and white, 5ms response time <br> <br .> Dot pitch 0.285mm <br> <br> Display color 16.2M <br> <br> Best resolution 1440 × 900 <br> <br> Input and output <br> <br> Interface type D-Sub <br> < .br> Bandwidth 135MHz <br> <br> Plug and play support DDC1/2B/CI <br> <br> Power consumption <br> <br> 90 ~ 240V power supply performance AC, 50/60Hz <br> <br> .Consumed power Max 37W <br> <br> Standby power consumption 2W <br> <br> Other performance <br> <br> Safety Agency approval cUL, FCC, CE, CCC, TCO '03, WindowsVista <br> <br> .Other features of parameter error correction VESA100mm wall mount hole <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br>.
20 plate Plate (ofabattery) consists of living nature and supporting use of conductor (if necessary) with electrodes.
21 positive plate Positiveplate discharge period constitutes the cathode and the anode charging period constitute a plate.
22 negative plates Negativeplate discharge period constitutes the anode and the cathode in charging period constitute a plate.
23 plate base plate group Plategroup have the same polarity pole plate connection of components.
24 separator Separator (ofabattery) placed in the battery positive and negative plates, permit ion through electrical insulating materials components, it can completely or partially blocking the active substances in mixtures.
25 great group combo plate group Platepack by divisions and positive, negative plates group consisting of parts.
26 Terminal: pole Terminal (ofabattery) batteries and external conductors connected parts.
27 electrolytes: electrolyte Electrolyte containing mobile ion and Ionic conductivity of liquid or solid substances.
28 battery shell: battery Container to accommodate groups and electrolyte batteries from electrolyte corrosion of the container.
29 capacity (Battery) in terms of capacity, a fully charged battery provides power, usually used when Ann (Ah). Note: the power of the international unit for Coulomb (1c = lA * s). But in actual use, the battery capacity is usually used said A.h.
30 discharge rate used battery discharge Dischargerate 5A said.
31 termination voltage FinalvoltageCut — offvoltage that discharge termination of voltage.
32 the initial voltage Initialvoltage circuit closed after initial instant polarization stabilized load voltage at all times.
33 nominal capacity Nominalcapacity used to identify the approximate battery suitable for an estimate.
34 rated capacity Ratedcapacity within the prescribed conditions, the battery is fully charged after the indicated by the manufacturer of an estimate.
35 self-discharge Self-discharge when battery is not connected with detection tester for electronic circuit, due to the spontaneous reactions within the battery and cause loss of chemical energy.
36-start capability Startingcapability battery in prescribed circumstances to provide power for engine starting motor skills.
37 Chargeacceptance battery charge acceptance in terms of the ability to accept the charge.
38 charged battery in the protection capacity of Chargeretention conditions open to maintain charge.
39 thermal runaway Thermalrunaway in constant pressure charging during a critical state. At this point, battery current and temperature occurs a cumulative effect of mutual enhancement and gradual increase lead battery damage.
40 overcharge Overcharge constitutional full charge continues charging.
41 constant current charging Constantcurrentcharge current value at a constant charge.
42 constant pressure charging Constantvoltagecharge battery terminal voltage is maintained at between a constant value of charging.
43 improved constant pressure charging Modifiedconstantvoltagecharge adopts constant pressure to limit current power charge of one way.
44 quick charging Boostcharge usually high rate short of a portion of the charge.
45 equalizing Equalizingcharge to ensure that the batteries in all single battery fully charged a renewal charge.
46 trickle charging Tricklecharge self-discharge for compensation, so that the battery is fully charged in approximately continuous state of charging current.
Friday, April 15, 2011
Application of remote control float valve <br> <BR> 1. Definition: A liquid level control valve, float valve control circuit using the opening and magnetic closures to control the main valve is opened and closed, so as to achieve set .level control valve. .2. Remote float group comprising the following components (along the flow direction): A. control valve (gate valve or butterfly valve); <BR> <BR> B. filter; C. remote control float valve. .<BR> <BR> Note: a. If the relatively clean medium when the main valve can be used within the system micro-filter tube instead of a pipe filter. .<BR> <BR> B. the installation site, the filter should remove the space. .3. When the life, production, fire water supply system of the pool (me) the nominal inlet diameter greater than or equal to 50mm, should set the remote control float valve. .4. Remote control float the nominal pipe diameter should be the same nominal diameter. .5. Remote control float valve should be set before the filter, the filter should meet the following requirements: A. filter material should have sufficient strength and rigidity, should be made of stainless steel and copper; filter orifice flow area of pipe cross-sectional area should be .1.5 to 2 times the number of holes should be 20 ~ 60 mesh. .B. should be easy to clean up. .6. Remote control float valve should be set in the pool or tank of water pipe, should the level of installation, the valve cover up. .The control catheter and float settings should meet the following requirements: A. Remote control of catheter float valve should be fully fixed in the pool or water tank, and control the total length of the catheter should be for more than 8cm, float center should be 1cm away from the outside or the water inlet .wave tube devices should be taken. .B. within the same pool or water tank above the water level above the overflow area should be destroyed to prevent pollution by backflow siphon phenomenon vent hole 10mm, hole centers and the overflow water level should meet the following requirements. .Overflow water from the vent center <BR> height (mm) 7. Remote control float valve outlet pipe in the pond or tank submerged flow approach should be adopted to reduce the flow noise. .Orifice should be less than the minimum water level, but from the pool or water tank should be not less than 50mm. .8. Remote control float valve installed next to the pool or tank walls. .9. Remote control float valve outlet for the metal tube or composite tube, inner tube in the tank or tank wall corrosion protection measures should be taken..
<br> in people's modern life and on the job, video surveillance systems have been widely used in optical fiber transmission-driven signal transmission. .The main advantages of optical fiber transmission: <BR> (1) low loss signal transmission, transmission distance. .Multi-mode fiber up to 5 km 80 km using single mode fiber and even farther; <BR> (2) TV signal has a wide frequency band, long-distance transmission is very difficult. .Optical fiber transmission of video signals, the transmission bandwidth of up to several hundreds of megabytes kilometers. .Can guarantee long-distance transmission of high signal to noise ratio, without high-frequency compensation. .This is a conventional cable can not match. .<BR> (3) strong anti-interference, electromagnetic radiation, no signal leakage, no ground and short circuit problems, the system power consumption. .<BR> (4) optical fiber transmission, long life, ordinary video cables up to 10-15 years, 30-50 years-long cable life. .<BR> Followed the highway, transportation, electronic police, surveillance, security, industrial automation, power, customs, water, banking and other areas of the video images, audio, data, Ethernet, telephone Optical begin .generally a large number of applications. .Early analog FM, AM, PM Optical in the market a considerable proportion of its transmission is baseband video, audio, data and other signals at a carrier frequency modulated by the firing Optical Fiber Transmission ., and then through the other end of the receiver to demodulate the Optical and restore into the corresponding baseband video, audio, data signals. .The domestic and foreign projects start large number of applications is the digital multi-channel Optical analog baseband video, audio, data, high-resolution digital, form a high-speed digital stream, then multiple multiplexed digital streams, through .Optical launch launch, and then the other end of the receiver by Optical receiving, demultiplexing, digital signal restored to separate ways, and through the digital to analog conversion (A / D analog-digital conversion) revert to analog video, audio, .data. .From the current market situation, the simulation Optical has gradually withdrawn from the market, and Digital Optical began mushrooming popularity in the market, a number instead of Moni, which is the optical fiber communication technology history of significant trends. .Optical transmission of digital signals with high quality, no analog frequency modulation, phase modulation, amplitude modulation Optical multi-channel signal transmission when the crosstalk with serious susceptible to environmental interference, poor transmission quality, long-term disadvantage of poor stability, .So many large and key projects has been widely used Digital Optical. .<BR> Optical and Digital Optical analog video what difference, which is the concern of many users, this paper discusses the following aspects are as follows: <BR> 1, optical fiber transmission signals in a different way .<BR> the name suggests, the simulation Optical emission of light on the head signal is modulated analog optical signal, which the carrier with the analog input signal amplitude, frequency, phase change caused by optical signal amplitude, frequency, phase changes are known as AM, FM ., Optical phase modulation. .The Digital Optical emission of light on the head signal is a digital signal that is 0 or 1 corresponds to the optical signal of strong and weak two states, different combinations of 0 and 1 represent different range of video, audio, and data signals. .<BR> 2, analog signal transmission input and output handling <BR> not the same, whether analog, digital optical transceiver, baseband input video, audio, and data signals must be processed. .The analog AM Optical, treatment is to video, audio, data on a high-frequency carrier signal amplitude modulation, the magnitude of the high frequency carrier signal with the video, audio, data rate changes; and digital light .client machine to the input baseband video, audio, data, high-resolution analog - digital converter, such as 1Vp-p amplitude range of range of the signal to digital signal using 12bits, said, 1V so into 4096, so after the analog-digital conversion .maximum voltage amplitude error caused by the 1/4096V (about 2.5mV), the error voltage is called quantization error voltage, the voltage amplitude value from a variety of 0V, 1/4096V, 2/4096V ... correspond to the maximum number of 1V .encoded 000000000000,000000000001,000000000010 ... 111 111 111 111. .Direct control of digital code signals emitted light signal head strong and weak two states (corresponding to 0 or 1), then the digital code received Optical digital - analog conversion, restored to the original baseband video, audio, data, .signal. .<BR> 3, dealing with different ways, causing the video, audio, and data signals signal distortion, aberration, interference due to the different simulation Optical <BR> for AM, FM, phase modulation, so the magnitude of the change in analog signal .and the carrier signal caused by amplitude modulation, frequency, phase changes correspond to the linear relationship between whether a good or bad to be the key Optical quality, so far, it is difficult to achieve true linear modulation, non-linear bound .cause signal distortion; also modulated carrier signal is also a good optical signal modulation, the nonlinear optical signal is also a very important factor, is well known that the nonlinear optical devices and the ambient temperature changes, voltage stability, light emission .Power has a great influence, it is required in the production of optical devices for 7-10 days of thermal cycling aging, and so screening process, aging, testing can only do this kind of change control in a certain range; optical signal in optical fiber .in the long haul, it will cause attenuation of optical signal power, transmission frequency shift, phase distortion, the same optical signal dispersion can also lead to optical signal distortion; optical signal reaches the receiver, the received optical devices still cause nonlinear distortion, by .photoelectric conversion into analog signals after the demodulation, modulation and demodulation will produce the same non-linear distortion. .So comprehensive simulation Optical, from the input signal modulation - electro-optic conversion - light output - energy conversion - the process of demodulation of these five would give rise to non-linear distortion, which signal distortion is inherent distortion, so it must not be eliminated .Therefore, the simulation Optical transmission of video images, audio quality, the effect of the data difficult to achieve very satisfactory results. .Optical digital only analog-digital conversion is only the quantization error (such as 1V when the video signal 12bits only 2.5mv), enough to cause signal distortion. .<BR> 4, simultaneous multi-channel signal intermodulation distortion caused by <BR> monitoring applications in the field, the user may have many various signals, such as video, audio, data, Ethernet, telephone or other user-defined .signals, each signal were used to transmit a pair of Optical inevitably expensive, so in order to improve fiber efficiency, reduce costs, the various signals to be multiplexed in the optical transceiver to a pair or a .optical fiber transmission. .On FM, AM, PM Optical speaking, 10/100M Ethernet signal or multiple transmit telephone signals is difficult to achieve high-speed, multi channel video or audio signal mixing frequency modulation, amplitude modulation, phase modulation in a .A carrier is bound to cause a variety of images, intermodulation interference. .So there were many well-known on the market of foreign brand FM, AM, PM Optical multi-channel video, audio, and data transmission often occurs with the phenomenon of interference, these instability phenomena are analog modulation technique has long been the .and difficult to solve the inherent problems and shortcomings. .So Analog Optical signal transmission capacity is limited, generally not more than 4 simultaneous signals. .The Digital Optical transmission of digital signals, it is easy to reuse and large-capacity interference does not occur. .Such as Shenzhen, South China Technology Co., Ltd all-digital Optical, can achieve up to 128 video, audio, data, Ethernet, telephone on the same fiber transmission without any crosstalk. .<BR> 5, the stability of the different analog modulation <BR> Optical modulation due to carrier, carrier and the shaved head is susceptible to environmental temperature. .The transfer quality varies with the shortcomings of the environment. .Because of such shortcomings, some large, important projects is concerned, the maintenance of Optical simulation has become a cause headache, which also brought a lot of contractors or owners of great dissatisfaction. .So a number of important projects selected Digital Optical is a wise choice. .<BR> 6, prices vary <BR> not the same as architecture, analog and digital Optical Optical slightly different prices, in general, single-channel video, audio, and data over a single Digital Optical .Analog Optical pricier, more than four-way video, audio, data, Optical Digital Optical contrast is much cheaper than analog, and that the transmission is much higher than analog video performance. .Therefore, the Digital Optical Optical cost-effective than analog. .<BR>.
The most suitable LED lighting color temperature range should be close to the Sun natural white colour temperature range is the most scientific of choice; low irradiation intensity of natural white light, you can reach other non-natural white incomparable radiation effects; the most economical surface brightness range should 2cd/m2; improving lighting total uniformity and eliminate glare is the energy consumption of the most effective way.
In incandescent lamps, high pressure sodium lamp, the lighting of color have no choice but to quietly accept and adapt. However, you can select the color temperature to the LED lighting times, select what kind of LED lighting color temperature, becomes an urgent need of it with a clear conscious perception of the problem. This is related to energy efficiency and lighting quality event, we should not tolerate sloppy.
There is a saying that tend to move with European hobby, select 2700-3200K color temperature range. It is said that this is the European preference in color temperature range. To do this, a different view, I would like to propose to discuss with you:
1. identification of the human brain on things and response mechanisms
The human brain through the eye to get outside things with images of the first reaction is to the image and the original storage in the brain and memory compared to the image information in the body on which recognition, then immediately make the appropriate response actions. If you get image information and original storage information closer to identifying the faster, more agile response to. Driver's night if the difference in natural light during the day and further low color temperature light, to obtain the recognition of images, the more difficult to identify the slower speed, response speed slower followed. Answer slowed 0.1 seconds the result is sufficient to let the accident rate suddenly spurt. To compensate for the difference between day andnight illumination lighting defects arising from, the only solution is to increase the lighting intensity to improve in the low speed of recognition under the color temperature, this means that the increase in energy consumption.
From animals to humans of hundreds of thousands of years of a long process, human beings have always been living under the Sun of natural light, are all production and social activities. Long natural selection and evolution of the results, making the most of human eyes adjust color temperature range is Sun natural white colour temperature range (5500-7500K). Human eyes in this color temperature, dynamic and static object identification most powerful; in this color temperature range, the human response to external things also most agile. Because the people inside the brain and memory information stored in the object image information, mostly in natural white light exposure. Therefore, the most appropriate LED lighting of color temperature range should be close to the Sun natural white colour temperature range, is the most scientific of choice.
2, Europeans like low color temperature of the biological, geographical reasons
Then, why Europeans like low color temperature? this is human and geographical reasons. European Ethnography for white skin, white light makes the white skin looking pale. Even exaggeration, just like the color of the dead, so they prefer warm is natural. But we are yellow, Sun and natural white tone does not make us look pale. Also, much of Europe is located in the high latitudes, temperature lower zone, this is also the lead they prefer warm geographical reasons. However, we are located at the four seasons of the temperate zone, and no long cold winter, follow the Europeans choose too warm tone, it's not.
3, yellow light rain and fog penetrating power of suitable applications where there is a saying, that is, low color temperature of yellow light penetrating the ability of the rain and fog, soyou should choose it. We do not deny that the yellow light on rain fog penetrating ability than white good this fact. However, we should understand that a lot of road lighting, is working in sunny accounted for most of the time, rain fog after all, the proportion of relatively small. Choose to adapt the mist weather warm color temperature luminaires, not distracting, the cart before the horse? in specific situations, such as Misty Harbor, is the low color temperature lighting of reasonable practices. Ordinary road lighting, or should select nearest Sun natural white colour temperature range, is both a science and energy-saving practices.
Above, we only from human identification and response mechanism to describe the lighting color temperature should choose close to nature of white light. Next, we go one step further from the angle of the color index to further on this point.
4, natural white light of the advantages of high color index
The Sun's natural white, after Mitsubishi mirror refraction, can be broken down into red, Orange, yellow, green, green, blue, purple, continuous spectrum, the wavelength of the seven rays 380nm-760nm. Sun natural white light contains full continuous visible spectrum.
The human eye can see objects, because the divergence from the objects or reflection of light into our eyes and senses. The basic mechanism for lighting is to bring light to the object, the object of absorption and reflection, and then from the outer surface of the reflex of objects into the eye, make people aware that the object's color and appearance. However, if this beam lighting light only a single color of light, then we can see that it is only with such a color object. It goes without saying that if the light is continuous with the full spectrum of light, then objects that appear in the face, and we in natural white light observed that the same vivid color tolerance and appearance.
Here you have to introduce a color index (Ra-colorrenderingindex/CRI) concept. The Sun's natural white light contains a complete and continuous spectrum, the body naturally white in the sun exposure, due to the interaction of various light, so that you can display the object's actual colors and appearance. So we put the Sun natural white color index defined as 100, which means that it can fully display the objects in the original true color. This is according to the human eye in Sun natural white light, the observed object's color, butSet of standards.
Strictly speaking, in the nature of the standard white light exposure, every seemingly dull ordinary objects contour, can be broken down into standard colour plate shows a variety of color stops. In other words, if we use the standard white light to shine any color of an object, we can see its contour is the most "thick". However, if you use the monochromatic light, or the color is not very rich, deviations from the standard Sun natural light lights to light the object, its contours, as photosource "deficient" and not "thick" clear, even blurred.
Traditional dominant spectral HPS as 589.2nm and 589.6nm, are two very close to the line, close to the monochromatic light. High pressure sodium lamps of color index only 20-30. Therefore, high pressure sodium lamps of various objects will appear blurry. In order to enable people to see the original appearance of real objects, you need to enhance the intensity of the illumination, will be able to reach the eyes to see the real needs of the original object. Strengthening of illuminance, means that the increase in energy consumption. Even so, the observation of objects under the HPS clarity and true color, is never achieved a true natural white light. This is a lot of night-time shopper, to the day when I found the shopping night, not their favorite color, screaming, and initiator, it was the low color index of the light as well. Street side lights of the night market under pressure sodium low color weakness, is likewindow shopping night market must first note point oh.
5, low temperature and low-cost color index
The Sun's rays from morning to night on Earth, not every moment we feel the sunlight, are necessarily the natural white light. Because it also affected by the thickness of a cloud of absorption and refraction, reflection, interference, constitute a natural white light of various spectrum components and proportions, will change. Morning sunlight, are subject to heavy clouds, irradiation angle of refraction, so this time Golden sunshine, its color index has gone even 100, cannot be regarded as natural white light.
In accordance with the definition of color temperature, Kevlin 2800K-10000K belongs to Sun's color temperature range, this is the broad definition of color temperature of the Sun. However, only the color temperature 6500K light (also called D65) is a white standard color temperature, it is also the standard illuminants CIE D65. 6500K color temperature of light that are contained in the spectrum of the most complete, most close to the natural white light. The farther away from natural white color temperature of light source, its color index is lower.
Obviously, the lower the led color temperature, color index is more than the white LED. In the low color index of the light, take a close look at the original appearance of real objects, you need a higher light intensity to compensate for the color index. This means that people have to increase the lighting energy input, to get closer to the natural white light displays objects of the real original.
Practice shows that the use of close to nature white light, need only much less than other sources of illumination allows people faithfully sensing object of the real colours and original appearance. Low light means that less energy input, that means saving energy. We recommend using white light source close to nature as our lighting.
6, low color temperature LED light intensity decreases costs
Since led packaging technology of doped a red pigment of LED, its light failure compared to white led faster, that is, its luminous intensity than white led down faster. Compensate for the light intensity decreases the cost of the loss is to increase the number of lamps LED packaging, that is, means that the increase in cost and energy, which is very reluctant to do so.
7. modify the inevitability of lighting standard times
Lighting of final purpose is to allow people to gain access to the dynamic and static objects realistic image of clarity. Now there is a color index of 70-90, close to the Sun naturally white LED lighting, is exactly what we improve lighting quality, reduce energy consumption of a very good chance.
High pressure sodium lamps of the color index of only 20-30. In order to it-led street lighting system, to obtain in the light of the objects observed identification and definition, it can only be used to increase the range of illumination value approach to efforts to achieve the purpose. Ministry of construction of the urban roadway lighting design standards ", is based on low-color index of sodium lamps-led lighting in the background, these standards were originally justifiable. However, the high color index of LED-lighting conditions, this standard becomes too high. Because, in high-color index of the led light source, to gain access to the object of the real image identification and observation of sharpness, need only much less than on HPS of illuminance required standard. In accordance with our many years of practical experience, just need less than the construction of the urban roadway lighting design standards for 30% of the illumination intensity, can reach and high pressure sodium, or even better identification and definition of lighting effects.
As with the HPS standards norms of illumination LED light source, means that unnecessary waste of energy. High intensity LED lighting, and even LED lighting will lead is too "loud" complaints; reducing the radiation intensity, not only can you gain energy savings, you can also obtain a "soft" lighting environment.
For high pressure sodium lamps and LED lamps both color index difference of 2-3 times of lighting, illumination standards changes certainly inevitable outcome. In our countries have yet to implement modifications of road lighting standards, only to draw the attention of the experts on this issue. Not offend the standards of existing national lighting, recommended or adopted the standard for low value is wise.
Therefore, LED lighting color temperature range and the choice of lighting standards, and lighting quality and energy conservation. Select nearest Sun natural white color temperature of LED lighting and appropriate lighting standards, isWise and science, in line with the principles of energy saving.
8, lighting brightness higher the better?
Currently, most domestic urban lighting brightness, are greater than the number of times specified by the State, as if to demonstrate the features of the city, in fact, this is very much a waste of energy of the error.
Please see the International Commission on illumination (CIE, 2003-2007), van-nipomo engineer (Ir.W.J.M.vanBommel) on average brightness and visibility of the results of the study:
Figure 1 shows the average brightness and pavement capacity RP (brief)
This is an average brightness of pavement and display capabilities (RP) curve. Display capabilities of the RP refers to the human eye can see on the barrier of probability, that is commonly referred to as visibility.
The above study curves clearly to our transfer of this information:
Typically, when the average brightness of pavement 0.6cd/m2, the ability to display only 10% of the RP; when the average luminance reach 2cd/m2, the RP can reach 80%. While the average luminance of the local area to double on to 4cd/m2, visibility to reach 91.5%, i.e. more than double the consumption of energy, but visibility only improve 11.5%. Even if the average brightness on the ground to five times the average brightness, ground up 10cd/m2, the visibility can only increase to 95%. Spend four times less energy to improve the visibility of 15%. From an economic perspective, this is the candle. From optimization perspective, the average brightness 0.6-2cd/m2 is the optimization of economic choice.
Diffuse reflectance surface luminance and illuminance of L = E/π ρ is a ground reflection factor ρ and illumination product is related to the mathematical relationship. It just goes to show that the average illuminance or higher the better, and it is subject to the above basic embodied in the curve. See the curve of the decision makers, we will naturally select 0.6-2cd/m2 of surface average brightness range, it does not and should not be blind pursuit of more light, the better.
9, the pursuit of high-efficiency lighting's main direction
First, let us first look at the international lighting Committee Chairman Mr. van. wave in the same chapter of canons, to reveal a second set of curves of the diagram:
Figure 2, the total lighting uniformity on the display capabilities of the RP (brief)
This is a set of lighting brightness uniformity on the ability to display the total RP of curve. The chart shows, when the glare of the thresholds in the same Department 7% increments, while the average luminance L = lighting 1cd/m2 unchanged conditions, when the lighting total uniformity U0 doubles from 0.2 0.4, display capabilities of the RP is from 5% to 75%. That is, when the lighting uniformity of doubles, visibility increased 15 times more! this illustrates the General lighting uniformity, compared to the average brightness of the much more important. It is the key to improving lighting quality factor. This reveals to us a very important energy saving:
To reduce energy consumption, without affecting the finalobjective of lighting visibility, the most important main direction is to improve the uniformity of the lighting. Good lighting total uniformity can be appropriately reduce the average brightness of illumination, which can achieve the same recognition to identify objects using Visual effects, while at the same time to achieve the purpose of saving energy.
The lighting concept of total uniformity that clearly. Total uniformity, refers to the entire road lighting total uniformity, especially road centerline total uniformity, and not only a single lamp lighting uniformity. Of course, total uniformity is made up of more than one single lighting uniformity to construct. Here we have another layout design of road lighting technology. Always in pursuit of big lamp spacing, I thought so as to conserve energy, this is a genuine mistake, because it will damage the uniformity of the lighting total than lighting brightness more important indicator. In the single lamp illumination range no longer expanded, we can only fit narrow spacing to Luminaire arrangement and coordination so as not to affect the total uniformity of road lighting. Road lighting designers first need to take care of the parameter, should be lighting total uniformity.
In the LED also does not appear in a single light source as the only light source lamp, to improve the uniformity of the lighting, only on lighting up reflex hood. However, entering a LED by multiple small light sources constitute a whole era of lamps, we should change the thinking of these single small lights up the article. How to control these individual small light sources, to achieve the aim of improving lighting uniformity, it should be listed as a lighting manufacturer's main direction.
10, another shortcut to improve lighting efficiency
Let us take a look at Mr. van. wave of another research results:
Figure 3 relative threshold incremental and display capabilities of the RP of relationship (brief)
This is a group of revealing the glare rating relative threshold incremental and display capabilities of the RP of the curve. First explain two concepts:
1, glare disabilityglare reduce the visibility of the Visual object, but does not necessarily produce a feeling of discomfort glare.
2, threshold incremental thresholdincrement (TI) glare metrics. Expressed in the glare of source, in order to achieve the same see objects in object and its background brightness contrast between the need to increase the percentage.
This set of curves show us, in total uniformity of the lighting 0.4, in different flare threshold incremental TI conditions, the ability to display changes of RP. For example, in the same average brightness (L = 1cd/m2), glare rating by TI = 30% reduced to 7%, then display capabilityRP from 25% to 75%. Visibility increased 3 times! this is a shortcut to improve the efficiency of lighting, it is possible to reduce the glare that can multiply to increase visibility, enabling you to reduce the corresponding appropriate lighting, can achieve the same visual effect of lighting.
Reduce glare component is to reduce energy consumption, eliminating the light pollution of an important measures. It also improves the quality of lighting, then appropriately reduced lighting brightness, further energy-saving, is an added benefit, you can not easily relinquish it well.
Therefore, select average brightness 0.5-2cd/m2 as a standard normal lighting of roads, is the most economical optimization options, excessive pursuit of high-intensity lighting, both energy without much practical lighting effects, and will produce glare and light pollution's error. Committed to the pursuit of improved lighting to reduce glare and total uniformity is the most important energy saving main direction.